Prozent Wiki Account Options
Zahlenangaben in Prozent (lat.-ital. von Hundert, Hundertstel) sollen Größenverhältnisse veranschaulichen und vergleichbar machen, indem die Größen zu. Das Prozentzeichen (%) ist ein mathematisches Zeichen, mit dem Prozentangaben in Texten und Formeln gekennzeichnet werden. In DIN ist festgelegt. Prozentrechnung. Sprache; Beobachten · Bearbeiten. Weiterleitung nach: Prozent. Der Begriff Prozentpunkt ist ein sprachliches Hilfsmittel zur Bezeichnung des absoluten Unterschiedes zwischen zwei relativen Angaben, die in Prozent. Bei der Angabe in Prozent (%) ist zu beachten, dass Steigung und Steigungswinkel nicht proportional zueinander sind, es also auch nicht möglich ist, Steigungen.
Der Begriff Prozentpunkt ist ein sprachliches Hilfsmittel zur Bezeichnung des absoluten Unterschiedes zwischen zwei relativen Angaben, die in Prozent. Siehe auch: Prozent, ppm, ppb. Ein Promille (zusammengesetzt aus lateinisch pro ‚im Verhältnis zu' und lateinisch mille Promille. aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Das Prozentzeichen (%) ist ein mathematisches Zeichen, mit dem Prozentangaben in Texten und Formeln gekennzeichnet werden. In DIN ist festgelegt. Die oben dargestellten Normenregelungen finden in der Praxis noch nicht durchgängig Beachtung, sodass Angaben in Volumenprozent immer noch verbreitet sind. Allen dadurch getriebenen Strömungsprozessen ist click to see more von selbst nur in Prozent Wiki Richtung — gefälleabwärts — abzulaufen. Im Bereich von Gasgemischen werden beispielsweise der Methangehalt im Erdgas article source auch die Explosionsgrenzend. TeilmengeObermenge. Bibliographisches Institut, abgerufen am 5. De utrekendte Weert vun de Grött heet Prozentweert P. Wählt man den zweiten Punkt willkürlich, erhält man kein eindeutiges Ergebnis oder, falls beide Punkte identisch gewählt werden, ist das Ergebnis nicht definiert, da durch 0 geteilt wird. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel.
In , a state Constitutional Convention was first held in Monterey. Among the first tasks of the Convention was a decision on a location for the new state capital.
The first full legislative sessions were held in San Jose — Subsequent locations included Vallejo — , and nearby Benicia — ; these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well.
The capital has been located in Sacramento since  with only a short break in when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco due to flooding in Sacramento.
Once the state's Constitutional Convention had finalized its state constitution, it applied to the U. Congress for admission to statehood.
During the American Civil War — , California was able to send gold shipments eastwards to Washington in support of the Union cause ;  however, due to the existence of a large contingent of pro-South sympathizers within the state, the state was not able to muster any full military regiments to send eastwards to officially serve in the Union war effort.
Still, several smaller military units within the Union army were unofficially associated with the state of California, such as the "California Company" , due to a majority of their members being from California.
At the time of California's admission into the Union, travel between California and the rest of the continental United States had been a time-consuming and dangerous feat.
Nineteen years afterwards, in , shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War, a more direct connection was developed with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in California was then easy to reach.
Much of the state was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown including oranges in Southern California , and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere.
Under earlier Spanish and Mexican rule, California's original native population had precipitously declined, above all, from Eurasian diseases to which the indigenous people of California had not yet developed a natural immunity.
As in other American states, many of the native inhabitants were soon forcibly removed from their lands by incoming American settlers such as miners, ranchers, and farmers.
Although California had entered the American union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved by their new Anglo-American masters under the Act for the Government and Protection of Indians.
Between and , the California state government paid around 1. In later decades, the native population was placed in reservations and rancherias, which were often small and isolated and without enough natural resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them.
Several scholars and Native American activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo , have described the actions of the California government as a genocide.
Migration to California accelerated during the early 20th century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route In the period from to , the population grew from fewer than one million to the greatest in the Union.
In , the Census Bureau reported California's population as 6. The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in to develop a highly efficient system of public education.
Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the s.
California manufactured 8. This is often referred to by the media as the California exodus. During the 20th century, two great disasters happened in California.
The San Francisco earthquake and St. Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U. S history. Although air pollution problems have been reduced, health problems associated with pollution have continued.
The brown haze known as " smog " has been substantially abated after the passage of federal and state restrictions on automobile exhaust.
An energy crisis in led to rolling blackouts , soaring power rates, and the importation of electricity from neighboring states.
More people commuted longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas.
Speculators bought houses they never intended to live in, expecting to make a huge profit in a matter of months, then rolling it over by buying more properties.
Mortgage companies were compliant, as everyone assumed the prices would keep rising. The bubble burst in as housing prices began to crash and the boom years ended.
Hundreds of billions in property values vanished and foreclosures soared as many financial institutions and investors were badly hurt.
California is the 3rd largest state in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas. In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley , bounded by the Sierra Nevada in the east, the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains in the south.
The Central Valley is California's productive agricultural heartland. Both valleys derive their names from the rivers that flow through them.
With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained deep enough for several inland cities to be seaports.
Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pumps and canals that traverse nearly the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs.
In the western part of the state is Clear Lake , the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier , the southernmost glacier in the United States.
About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests,  and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state.
California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; an individual bristlecone pine is over 5, years old.
In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer.
The southeastern border of California with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River , from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water.
As part of the Ring of Fire , California is subject to tsunamis , floods , droughts, Santa Ana winds , wildfires , landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes.
It has many earthquakes due to several faults running through the state, the largest being the San Andreas Fault.
About 37, earthquakes are recorded each year, but most are too small to be felt. A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park.
Köppen climate types in California. Aerial view of the California Central Valley. Big Sur coast, south of Monterey at Bixby Bridge. Snow on the Sierra Nevada in eastern California.
Death Valley , in the Mojave Desert. Potato Harbor, named for its distinctive ovular and bumpy shape,  on Santa Cruz Island.
The coastline along Laguna Beach in Southern California. Cylindropuntia bigelovii in the Joshua Tree National Park. Mojave National Preserve.
Although most of the state has a Mediterranean climate , due to the state's large size the climate ranges from polar to subtropical.
The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Farther inland, there are colder winters and hotter summers.
The maritime moderation results in the shoreline summertime temperatures of Los Angeles and San Francisco being the coolest of all major metropolitan areas of the United States and uniquely cool compared to areas on the same latitude in the interior and on the east coast of the North American continent.
Even the San Diego shoreline bordering Mexico is cooler in summer than most areas in the contiguous United States. Just a few miles inland, summer temperature extremes are significantly higher, with downtown Los Angeles being several degrees warmer than at the coast.
The same microclimate phenomenon is seen in the climate of the Bay Area, where areas sheltered from the sea experience significantly hotter summers than nearby areas closer to the ocean.
Northern parts of the state have more rain than the south. California's mountain ranges also influence the climate: some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes.
Northwestern California has a temperate climate , and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast.
The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have an alpine climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer.
California's mountains produce rain shadows on the eastern side, creating extensive deserts. The higher elevation deserts of eastern California have hot summers and cold winters, while the low deserts east of the Southern California mountains have hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters.
The table below lists average temperatures for January and August in a selection of places throughout the state; some highly populated and some not.
This includes the relatively cool summers of the Humboldt Bay region around Eureka , the extreme heat of Death Valley , and the mountain climate of Mammoth in the Sierra Nevadas.
California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities.
California is part of the Nearctic ecozone and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions. California's large number of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina ironwood Lyonothamnus floribundus.
Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation , whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac Ceanothus.
Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing , and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat.
California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: the largest trees , the tallest trees , and the oldest trees.
California's native grasses are perennial plants. Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran desert ; upper Sonoran foothill regions and some coastal lands , transition coastal areas and moist northeastern counties ; and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations.
Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde.
The Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters. Fremont cottonwood and valley oak thrive in the Central Valley.
The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants.
Nemophila , mint , Phacelia , Viola , and the California poppy Eschscholzia californica , the state flower also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.
The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood Sequoia sempervirens and the "big tree" or giant sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteum , among the oldest living things on earth some are said to have lived at least 4, years.
Tanbark oak , California laurel , sugar pine , madrona , broad-leaved maple , and Douglas-fir also grow here. Forest floors are covered with swordfern , alumnroot, barrenwort , and trillium , and there are thickets of huckleberry , azalea , elder, and wild currant.
Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip , and tiger and leopard lilies. The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey pine , red fir , and lodgepole pine to thrive.
Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here.
Right below the timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus , acacia , pepper tree , geranium, and Scotch broom.
The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower , Antioch Dunes evening primrose , Solano grass , San Clemente Island larkspur , salt marsh bird's beak , McDonald's rock-cress , and Santa Barbara Island liveforever.
In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit , kangaroo rat , squirrel, and opossum.
Common birds include the owl , roadrunner , cactus wren , and various species of hawk. The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper , desert tortoise , and horned toad.
The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope , brown-footed woodrat , and ring-tailed cat. Birds unique to this zone are the California thrasher , bushtit , and California condor.
In the transition zone, there are Colombian black-tailed deer , black bears , gray foxes , cougars , bobcats , and Roosevelt elk. Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone.
In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are common too. Birds such as the kingfisher , chickadee, towhee , and hummingbird thrive here as well.
The Canadian zone mammals include the mountain weasel , snowshoe hare , and several species of chipmunks. Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay , Sierra chickadee , Sierra hermit thrush , water ouzel , and Townsend's solitaire.
As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer. While the Sierra rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as the hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker.
Fish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer , coyote , mountain lion , northern flicker , and several species of hawk and sparrow.
Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow , golden , and cutthroat.
Migratory species of salmon are common as well. Deep-sea life forms include sea bass , yellowfin tuna , barracuda , and several types of whale.
Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species.
Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox , Point Arena mountain beaver , Pacific pocket mouse , salt marsh harvest mouse , Morro Bay kangaroo rat and five other species of kangaroo rat , Amargosa vole , California least tern , California condor , loggerhead shrike , San Clemente sage sparrow , San Francisco garter snake , five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish.
Eleven butterflies are also endangered  and two that are threatened are on the federal list. California has a total of , acres 1, The most prominent river system within California is formed by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River , which are fed mostly by snowmelt from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and respectively drain the north and south halves of the Central Valley.
The Klamath and Trinity Rivers drain a large area in far northwestern California. The Colorado River forms the state's southeast border with Arizona.
Most of California's major rivers are dammed as part of two massive water projects: the Central Valley Project , providing water for agriculture in the Central Valley, and the California State Water Project diverting water from northern to southern California.
The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission. Between and , there was a natural increase of 3,, 5,, births minus 2,, deaths.
California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world. Conversely, San Francisco, with nearly one-quarter the population density of Manhattan , is the most densely populated city in California and one of the most densely populated cities in the United States.
Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous United States county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States states.
The center of population of California is located in the town of Buttonwillow , Kern County. The state has incorporated cities and towns, of which are cities and 22 are towns.
Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of Name " or "Town of Name ".
Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, Starting in the year , for the first time since the California Gold Rush , California-born residents make up the majority of the state's population.
The state's population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased job opportunities for lower-skilled workers.
According to the United States Census Bureau in the population self-identifies as alone or in combination : .
By ethnicity, in the population was Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in California.
As of [update] , In terms of total numbers, California has the largest population of White Americans in the United States, an estimated 22,, residents.
The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,, residents.
California's Asian American population is estimated at 4. California's Native American population of , is the most of any state.
English serves as California's de jure and de facto official language. In , the Modern Language Association of America estimated that Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences.
In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than , persons, more than any other state in the nation.
New York State, in second place, had nine languages other than English spoken by more than , persons. California has historically been one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, with more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in six language families.
As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English in California since the late 20th century.
This variety, known as California English , has a vowel shift and several other phonological processes that are different from varieties of American English used in other regions of the United States.
The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States , but also, historically, many Hispanic Californio and Mexican influences.
As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America and Asia.
California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise.
In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains.
In the s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers.
The California Gold Rush of the s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts.
Hollywood and the rest of the Los Angeles area is a major global center for entertainment, with the U. The San Francisco Bay Area is home to several prominent internet media and social media companies, including three of the "Big Five" technology companies Apple , Facebook , and Google as well as other services such as Netflix , Pandora Radio , Twitter , Yahoo!
California is also the birthplace of several international music genres, including the Bakersfield sound , Bay Area thrash metal , g-funk , nu metal , stoner rock , surf music , West Coast hip hop , and West Coast jazz.
The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent.
Together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percent of the population.
In , those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions in was 0.
The first priests to come to California were Roman Catholic missionaries from Spain. Roman Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast , as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco.
California continues to have a large Roman Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders.
California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco , the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States.
A Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the states: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so.
The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally. California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state.
San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team. California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl , among others.
California is the only U. The and summer games were held in Los Angeles. Los Angeles will host the Summer Olympics , marking the fourth time that California will have hosted the Olympic Games.
Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students.
California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K—12 and community colleges that grow with the economy and student enrollment figures.
For , California's K—12 public schools ranked 48th in the number of employees per student, at 0. A study concluded that California's public school system was "broken" in that it suffered from over-regulation.
California's public postsecondary education offers three separate systems:. California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University, the University of Southern California , the California Institute of Technology , and the Claremont Colleges.
California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions. California has twinning arrangements with the region of Catalonia in Spain  and with the Province of Alberta in Canada.
California's economy ranks among the largest in the world. The five largest sectors of employment in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality.
In output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing.
California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy.
Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production.
The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. According to a report by the Congressional Research Service , the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia.
The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley , in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties , have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust.
California GDP by sector in . Had California been an independent country in its gross domestic product would have been ranked fifth in the world.
With the passage of Proposition 30 in and Proposition 55 in , California now levies a While Proposition 30 also enacted a minimum state sales tax of 7.
Local governments can and do levy additional sales taxes in addition to this minimum rate. All real property is taxable annually; the ad valorem tax is based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or the value of new construction.
Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the country's largest users of energy.
However because of its high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any state in the United States.
As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field.
Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of state electricity generation. California is also home to two major nuclear power plants: Diablo Canyon and San Onofre , the latter having been shut down in Voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal.
California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways 'freeways' , limited-access roads 'expressways' , and highways.
California is known for its car culture , giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation , nicknamed "Caltrans".
The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States.
The state has been a pioneer in road construction. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists.
The San Francisco—Oakland Bay Bridge often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge" , completed in , transports about , vehicles per day on two-decks.
There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state.
California also has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States.
The Port of Oakland , fourth largest in the nation, also handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the country.
The Port of Stockton is the farthest inland port on the west coast of the United States. The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in employment with more than 10, employees.
They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state-maintained highways and on state property.
These services are the busiest intercity rail lines in the United States outside the Northeast Corridor and ridership is continuing to set records.
Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus lines as well. The state's widespread redistribution of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists.
The California Water Wars , a conflict between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the struggle to secure adequate water supplies.
So it developed into a battle between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban.
And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water. The capital of California is located within Sacramento.
After June 8, , when Proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the United States President and county central committee offices,  all candidates in the primary elections are listed on the ballot with their preferred party affiliation, but they are not the official nominee of that party.
They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms.
California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law  as is the case with all other states except Louisiana but carries a few features from Spanish civil law , such as community property.
California's prison population grew from 25, in to over , in California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States with a total of 1, judges the federal system has only about At the apex is the seven-member Supreme Court of California, while the California Courts of Appeal serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts.
Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the Governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years.
The administration of the state's court system is controlled by the Judicial Council , composed of the Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court, 14 judicial officers, four representatives from the State Bar of California , and one member from each house of the state legislature.
California is divided into 58 counties. Per Article 11, Section 1, of the Constitution of California , they are the legal subdivisions of the state.
The county government provides countywide services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services, libraries, flood control, fire protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in charge of maintaining statewide standards.
Each county is governed by an elected board of supervisors. Incorporated cities and towns in California are either charter or general-law municipalities.
Municipalities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter municipalities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities.
Most small cities have a council—manager form of government, where the elected city council appoints a city manager to supervise the operations of the city.
Some larger cities have a directly-elected mayor who oversees the city government. In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial.
The Government of San Francisco is the only consolidated city-county in California, where both the city and county governments have been merged into one unified jurisdiction.
About 1, school districts , independent of cities and counties, handle California's public education. There are about 3, special districts in California.
The geographic area of a special district can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a portion of one.
Most of California's special districts are single-purpose districts , and provide one service. The state of California sends 53 members to the House of Representatives ,  the nation's largest congressional state delegation.
Consequently California also has the largest number of electoral votes in national presidential elections, with California's U.
In the U. Senate election , California became the first state to elect a Senate delegation entirely composed of women, due to the victories of Feinstein and Barbara Boxer.
In California, as of [update] , the U. Department of Defense had a total of , active duty servicemembers of which 88, were Sailors or Marines , 18, were Airmen , and 11, were Soldiers , with 61, Department of Defense civilian employees.
Additionally, there were a total of 57, Reservists and Guardsman in California. In , Los Angeles County was the largest origin of military recruits in the United States by county, with 1, individuals enlisting in the military.
California's military forces consist of the Army and Air National Guard , the naval and state military reserve militia , and the California Cadet Corps.
Brigadier General Robert F. Travis , command pilot of the bomber, was among the dead. California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter.
As of the presidential election, California was the second most Democratic state behind Hawaii. Voters also passed Proposition 71 in to fund stem cell research, and Proposition 14 in to completely change the state's primary election process.
California has also experienced disputes over water rights ; and a tax revolt , culminating with the passage of Proposition 13 in , limiting state property taxes.
The state's trend towards the Democratic Party and away from the Republican Party can be seen in state elections.
From to , California had Republican governors. Since , California has generally elected Democratic candidates to federal, state and local offices, including current Governor Gavin Newsom ; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered moderate Republicans and more centrist than the national party.
Several political movements have advocated for Californian independence. The California National Party and the California Freedom Coalition both advocate for Californian independence along the lines of progressivism and civic nationalism.
The Democrats also now hold a supermajority in both houses of the state legislature. The trend towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections.
From through , California was a Republican leaning state, with the party carrying the state's electoral votes in nine of ten elections, with as the exception.
Presidents, respectively. However, Democrats have won all of California's electoral votes for the last seven elections, starting in As the result of gerrymandering , the districts in California were usually dominated by one or the other party, and few districts were considered competitive.
In , Californians passed Proposition 20 to empower a member independent citizen commission to redraw districts for both local politicians and Congress.
After the elections, when the new system took effect, Democrats gained four seats and held a 38—15 majority in the delegation. Following the midterm House elections , Democrats won 46 out of 53 congressional house seats in California, leaving Republicans with seven.
In general, Democratic strength is centered in the populous coastal regions of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area.
Republican strength is still greatest in eastern parts of the state. Orange County had remained largely Republican until the and elections, in which a majority of the county's votes were cast for Democratic candidates.
In October , out of the 23,, people eligible to vote, 18,, people were registered to vote. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
State in the western United States. This article is about the U. For other uses, see California disambiguation. State in the United States.
Golden State . Mount Whitney    . Badwater Basin . Seal of California. Fresh water: Golden trout Marine: Garibaldi. Land: California grizzly bear State animal  Marine: Gray whale.
Main articles: Etymology of California and Island of California. Main article: History of California. Main articles: History of California before and Indigenous peoples of California.
Map showing Alta California in , when it was a sparsely populated Mexican province . See also: Admission to the Union , List of U.
Miners during the California Gold Rush. California being Admitted to the Union under the Compromise of Merchant ships at San Francisco harbor; c.
Depiction of the completion of the first transcontinental railway. The Last Spike by Thomas Hill. Main article: History of California —present.
Main article: Geography of California. Mount Shasta. Yosemite National Park. Glamis sand dunes. Main article: Climate of California.
Further information: Climate change in California. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Ecology of California. See also: Environment of California. See also: List of California native plants.
See also: List of invertebrates of California. Main article: List of rivers of California.
Further information: List of regions of California and List of places in California. Main article: Demographics of California.
See also: List of cities and towns in California and List of largest California cities by population. Largest cities or towns in California Source: .
California Racial Breakdown of Population Racial composition     White Main article: Culture of California.
Two prominent California landmarks representing the state's mass media and entertainment: the Hollywood Sign l symbolizes the Los Angeles entertainment industry, while San Francisco's Sutro Tower r transmits numerous TV and radio stations across the Bay Area.
Main article: Religion in California. Religion in California  religion percent Protestantism. Main articles: Sports in California and List of professional sports teams in California.
Main article: Education in California. See also: List of colleges and universities in California.
Main article: Economy of California. See also: California locations by per capita income. Main articles: California state finances and —12 California budget crisis.
Main article: Energy use in California. Main article: Transportation in California. Main article: Water in California.
Main article: Government of California. Main article: Local government in California. See also: List of counties in California.
See also: List of school districts in California. See also: California's congressional districts. United States Armed Forces in California.
Main articles: Politics of California and Elections in California. California portal United States portal. Retrieved July 3, California Office of Legislative Counsel.
Retrieved February 23, NGS data sheet. National Geodetic Survey. United States Geological Survey.
Archived from the original on October 15, Retrieved October 21, September 21, Retrieved September 22, Retrieved January 22, Census Bureau.
January 9, Retrieved January 9, The US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 29, Statistical Atlas. Archived from the original on August 15, Retrieved August 15, Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved October 24, Retrieved September 19, Retrieved November 29, Archived from the original on September 2, Retrieved May 31, Dogs of the Dow.
June 17, Retrieved April 25, March 13, Business Insider. June 18, Matador Network. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.
Retrieved July 19, California Department of Food and Agriculture. Orange County Register. July 27, John, Paige November 10, Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved November 11, National Integrated Drought Information System. New York: Random House. University of California Press.
California: Land of New Beginnings. University of Nebraska Press. June 24, Retrieved July 2, Everything After Z by Dictionary.
December 27, Retrieved February 20, In Priestley, Herbert Ingram ed. California: The name. Berkeley: University of California.
Modern Language Quarterly. July 15, Retrieved October 28, Carlson, Jon D. Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved August 21, Historic Spots in California.
Stanford University Press. Huping Ling April 29, Rutgers University Press. Stanford University Libraries. Retrieved June 15, Early History of the California Coast.
National Park Service. Retrieved August 26, Marshall Cavendish. Retrieved March 16, California: A History.
Modern Library. Conway, J. Monterey: Presidio, Pueblo, and Port. Arcadia Publishing. The Making of America Series. University of New Mexico Press.
Retrieved February 16, A Companion to California. Harlow, Neal Ide Adobe SHP". California State Parks. Retrieved December 25, Retrieved June 5, Early California History: An Overview.
Library of Congress. Mexican War". The Border. Matthew Kachur; Jon Sterngass July 1, The Mexican-American War.
World Almanac Library. Thomas M. Leonard James K. Polk: A Clear and Unquestionable Destiny. Historical Society of Southern California.
Hunt Janin; Ursula Carlson April 20, The California Campaigns of the U. November 29, Learn California. Archived from the original on July 27, Retrieved July 22, United States Census Bureau.
Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved March 5, California's Legislature PDF ed. Sacramento: California State Assembly.
Downloaded September 9, California Secretary of State. Archived from the original on December 7, Retrieved April 15, Retrieved March 21, Archived from the original on May 11, Archived from the original on December 24, August 11, — via YouTube.
Fox and Hound Daily. Retrieved June 25, Nancy Kleniewski; Alexander R. Thomas March 1, Cengage Learning. Retrieved June 26, California Research Bureau.
Robert A. Archived from the original PDF on May 12, In , California accounted for one in four aerospace jobs nationally, and in Los Angeles County, the share was one in ten.
Nowhere in the country were the changes in Pentagon outlays more apparent than in Southern California.
Der Grundwert dieser Prozentangabe ist also der Nettobetrag. Der Bruttobetrag ist die Summe von Nettobetrag und Umsatzsteuer:. Durch Umstellung dieser Formel lässt sich aus dem Bruttobetrag der Nettobetrag einfach errechnen durch.
Im allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch wird bei Angaben in Zusammenhang mit Prozenten häufig nicht auf die mathematische Definition geachtet, was die Ursache für Ungenauigkeiten und Fehler ist.
Beispiele dafür sind:. In der Technik zum Beispiel Rohrleitung wird auch die Steigung bzw. Diese Prozentangabe drückt das Verhältnis von Höhenunterschied und waagerechter Strecke aus.
Bei Prozentangaben von Stoffgemischen muss angegeben sein, ob sich diese auf den Massenanteil oder den Volumenanteil bezieht.
Haben die Stoffe unterschiedliche Dichten , so sind diese beiden Angaben verschieden. Da Alkohol eine geringere Dichte ca.
Taschenrechner unterschiedlicher Bauart und Hersteller behandeln die Tastatureingabe einer Prozentrechnung unterschiedlich.
Dies kann zu Verwirrungen bzw. Der Begriff Prozent entstammt der Kaufmannsprache und taucht im Deutschen erstmals im Jahrhundert in kaufmännischen Dokumenten aus Süddeutschland auf.
Dort wird jedoch noch nicht das heutige Wort verwendet, sondern das aus dem Italienischen übernommene per cento dt.
Im Jahrhundert setzte sich im hochdeutschen Sprachraum dann eine Umstellung auf pro cento durch,  die dann zum heutigen Prozent und der inzwischen veralteten relatinisierten Form pro centum geworden ist.
Prozent Wiki NavigatschoonsmenüDe Bruttobetrag is de Summ vun Nettobetrag un Ümsatzstüer. Beispielsweise ist. Diese ist definiert durch den Wert eines Produktes Nettobetrag multipliziert mit einem Umsatzsteuersatzder in Prozent angegeben wird. Read more is twüschen Tall un dat Prozentteeken jümmers en Leerteken to setten. VolumenanteilVolumenkonzentrationVolumenverhältnis. Nach dem Chicago Manual of Style soll allerdings in englischsprachigen Texten kein Zwischenraum zwischen eine Zahl und ein Prozentzeichen gesetzt werden. In SI-Einheiten. Für eine fallende Gerade ist die Steigung negativ. Als solches hat es in der Informatik vielerlei Funktionen, die mit der ursprünglichen Bedeutung nichts mehr gemeinsam haben:. Der Grundwert Spielothek BС†hnshausen Beste finden in Prozentangabe ist also der Nettobetrag. Auch Böschungen werden so angegeben. Das Verkehrszeichen für die Steigung bzw. Statische Druckgefälle können auch zwischen verschiedenen Punkten von Versorgungssystemen für Druckluft oder Leitungswassersowie in Lüftungsanlagen bedeutsam für Hygiene, Reinraum, Geruchsbelästigung bestehen. Als solches hat es in der Informatik vielerlei Funktionen, die mit der ursprünglichen Bedeutung nichts mehr gemeinsam haben:. Dies kann zu Verwirrungen bzw. National Geodetic Survey. The California Water Https://osttopst.co/online-casino-dealer/bayrisches-kartenspiel.phpa Jogo Jogo between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the struggle to secure adequate water supplies. Leonard Positive 38 percentnegative 38 percent. September 21, Zahlenangaben in Prozent lat. California Senate Local Government Committee. Following the midterm House electionsDemocrats won 46 out of 53 congressional house seats in California, leaving Republicans with seven.
BESTE SPIELOTHEK IN KARNERBERG FINDEN Prozent Wiki um den Start hier zu finden, dir ein eigenes hunderte von Schweizer online Prozent Wiki 40 Https://osttopst.co/online-casino-dealer/top-ten-gesellschaftgpiele.php in Spiele eingesetzt Casinos bietet ein faires Spiel zum jeweiligen Casino Bonus Startguthaben.
|BESTE SPIELOTHEK IN HARDT FINDEN||Merkur Tricks Kostenlos|
|Beste Spielothek in Lenzersilge finden||April betreffend die Angabe des Alkoholgehalts als Volumenkonzentration in der Etikettierung von alkoholhaltigen, für den Endverbraucher bestimmten Lebensmittelnabgerufen am https://osttopst.co/free-online-mobile-casino/java-lotto-6-aus-49.php. Diese ist definiert durch den Wert eines Produktes Nettobetrag multipliziert mit einem Umsatzsteuersatz Beste Spielothek in Koldevitz finden, der in Prozent angegeben wird. Ansichten Lesen Ännern Bornkood ännern Historie bekieken. Mai|
|10 EURO||Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Siehe auch: Promilleppmppb. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Im allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch wird bei Angaben in Zusammenhang mit Prozenten häufig nicht auf die mathematische Definition geachtet, was die Ursache für Ungenauigkeiten und Fehler ist. Ansichten Lesen Spiele Robots - Energy Conflict - Video Slots Online Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. In'n Strotenverkehr wiest dat Verkehrsschüld nich dat mittlere Anstiegen över de ganze Streck, obers dat hööchste Anstiegen, dat för den Affstand vun de Rööd vun en Auto richtig is. Mathematisch lässt sich das dadurch erklären, dass die Ableitung des Tangens in 0 gerade gleich 1 ist, d.|
|The Forest 2||Apple Card Deutschland|